Times, exchanges, transportation whatsapp phone number list and accommodation; and also gender violence, by the male partner who hides the information or who leaves his wife. This means that people systematically arrive at their whatsapp phone number list destination penniless and in debt, particularly women. The routes traveled also have the particularity of being extremely absurd in some cases, passing through cities that are far whatsapp phone number list from the destinations, through difficult geographical areas, etc.
Therefore, emphasizing whatsapp phone number list the voluntary nature of trafficking contributes to the irregularization of migrants, since immigration control institutions do not allow them to report that they have been victims of whatsapp phone number list trafficking, due to their alleged consent. In short, what is understood in legal language as "migrant smuggling" is the existence of a system of exploitation of human mobility, which does not always function as an articulated network, nor as "international organized crime". It is a complex system that responds to the precariousness of lives, which even in the face of the threat of the coronavirus does whatsapp phone number list not stop reproducing itself.
Final thoughts Latin American whatsapp phone number list migration policies have been standardized by restricting human mobility, which does not mean immobility, since people allow themselves to be exploited looking for a way out of their whatsapp phone number list extreme precariousness and are the object of different types of violence and racialization. In this way, Latin American countries contribute to the irregularization of migrants, particularly those who are in transit. We also see that the closure of borders imposed to stop the spread of the coronavirus has come to reinforce what migration policies were already producing: greater whatsapp phone number list vulnerability and exposure to risk.